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TsuNAME: New DNS Bug could be used to DDoS Authoritative DNS Servers


Security researchers have found extreme domain name system (DNS) fixes that hackers may use to conduct constructive denial-of-service attacks on authoritative DNS servers. The bug they refer to as TsuNAME has been discovered by researchers from SIDN Labs and InternetNZ. The bug is a humongous reflection-based distributed denial of service (DDoS) amplification function attacking authoritative DNS servers. 

Authoritative DNS servers are translated into IP addresses, such as 64.233.160.0, through web domains along like, www.google.com. One must realize the distinction between an authoritative and recursive DNS server to consider the context of the vulnerability and its functions. 

Authoritative DNS servers, like Internet Service Providers (ISPs) and global tech giants, are usually operated by government and private sector organizations. Attackers trying to take advantage of the complexity of TsuNAME DNS target insecure recidivism resolutions to overload reputable servers, including large numbers of malicious DNS queries. 

"Resolvers vulnerable to TsuNAME will send non-stop queries to authoritative servers that have cyclic dependent records," the researchers explain in their security advisory. 

"While one resolver is unlikely to overwhelm an authoritative server, the aggregated effect from many looping, vulnerable recursive resolvers may as well do." 

A potential effect after such an attack could be that authenticated DNS servers are downloaded, which may cause country-wide Internet interruption if a country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is impaired. It could be utilized to perform DDoS attacks on critical DNS infrastructure and services such as large TLDs or ccTLDs, which possibly impact country resources according to primary research materials which makes TsuNAME especially more dangerous. 

"We observed 50% traffic increases due to TsuNAME in production in .nz traffic, which was due to a configuration error and not a real attack," the researchers added. 

TsuNAME also had events affecting an EU-based ccTLD which raised incoming DNS traffic by a factor of 10 due to only two domains that are misconfigured by cyclical dependence. An intruder with access to several fields and a botnet can cause even more damage if their domains are misconfigured and open resolvers are tested. 

The impact of TsuNAME attacks can also be reduced by authoritative server managers using the open-source CycleHunter tool that avoids such incidents, detects, and prevents the pre-emptively fixing of cyclical dependencies in their DNS areas.

Bug in Brave Browser Expose Users’ Dark Web History

 

Brave, the web browser that insists on privacy, exposes users' activities to its Internet Service Providers on Tor's secret servers, or "dark web." In its browser, Brave has solved a data protection problem that sends queries for .onion domains to a DNS solution, instead of a Tor node path, so that access to the dark website is shown to users. In a hotfix release, the bug was addressed.

Brave is an open-source web browser built on a Chromium web browser created by Brave Software, Inc. It restricts advertisements and website trackers and supplies users with a way to submit cryptocurrency donations to websites and developers of content in the form of simple tokens. 

Introduced in June 2018, Brave's Tor mode has enabled Brave users to gain anonymity when browsing the internet, encouraging them to have access to the .onion versions of legal websites such as Facebook, Wikipedia, and key news portals over the years. However, an unnamed security researcher reported in the research article, that Brave's Tor mode had sent queries to DNS resolvers rather than Tor nodes on the open Network. DNS requests are non-encrypted so that attempts to access .onion sites in Brave can be monitored using the Tor functionality, which is directly contradictory to the goal of this platform at first. 

The aforementioned DNS leak poses great dangers when all leaks build footprints on the Tor traffic of Brave users in DNS server logs. The risk is important. While in some Western states with stable democracy it might not be troublesome, it may be a concern for certain browser users to browse Brave's Tor websites from the authoritarian regimes. 

This problem seems to be the product of the browser's CNAME ad-block feature, which blocks third-party monitoring scripts using CNAME DNS for first-party scripts and prevents traffic blocker detection. This allows a website to cloak third-party scripts using primary domain's- sub-domains that are then immediately routed into a monitoring domain. 

Over the last three years, the organization has worked to develop today, second only to Tor Browser, one of the most privacy-driven Web browser solutions available. 

A Brave developer has stated after the release that the browser provided a hotfix on the problem. The problem is already solved on the night of the development of the browser. 

“Since it’s now public we’re uplifting the fix to a stable hotfix. Root cause is regression from CNAME- based adblocking which used a separate DNS query.” He further added. 

Hackers Dropping Malware via Free WinZip Trial Popup Vulnerability

 

Researchers have discovered a critical security flaw in WinZip 24 that targets users with malware. WinZip trial popup vulnerability allows hackers to perform arbitrary code execution and DNS poisoning.
 
When WinZip displays prompt informing about the expiry of the free trial and sends requests for checking updates, it communicates in plaintext over HTTP instead of HTTPS; the vulnerability has been reported to exist in the way WinZip communicated with its servers, making it susceptible to exploits by malicious actors who delivered malware through the same. 

WinZip is free to download ZIP tool program that is used to compress and decompress files easily. It enables users to zip and unzip almost all file formats including zip, tar, rar, and etc. However, the tool is available online free for a trial period, and to continue availing its services fully, users need to purchase a license for which the tool checks software status for users over a period of time, repeatedly. Once it detects the trial period being expired, the software displays a prompt using the abovementioned way of communication: That is where the bug was found.
 
It was in between that attackers could intercept the traffic and intervene in the communicated text and added an infected WinZip version. Furthermore, the users' concerns are aggravated by the fact that the update request also contains personal data of the user such as 'registered username', 'registration code', and other required information for the processing of the request. This information could also be accessed by the attacker meddling with the trial popup.
 
"WinZip 24 opens pop-up windows time to time when running in Trial mode. Since the content of these popups is HTML with JavaScript that is also retrieved via HTTP, it makes manipulation of that content easy for a network adjacent attacker," as told by Researchers from Trustwave.
 
"The application sends out potentially sensitive information like the registered username, registration code and some other information in query string as a part of the update request. Since this is over an unencrypted channel this information is fully visible to the attacker."
 
"This means anyone on the same network as user running a vulnerable version of WinZip can use techniques like DNS poisoning to trick the application to fetch “update” files from malicious web server instead of legitimate WinZip update host. As a result, unsuspecting user can launch arbitrary code as if it is a valid update," the researchers further added.

Vulnerability in DNS Servers Discovered By Academics from Israel


A vulnerability in DNS servers that can be exploited to launch DDoS attacks of huge extents was as of late discovered by a team academics from Israel, the attack as indicated by them impacts recursive DNS servers and the procedure of DNS delegation.

In a research paper published, the academics from the Tel Aviv University and The Interdisciplinary Center in Herzliya, Israel, said they figured out how to abuse this delegation procedure for DDoS attacks. 

The NXNSAttack technique has various aspects and varieties, yet the fundamental steps are detailed below:

1) The attacker sends a DNS query to a recursive DNS server. The solicitation is for a domain like "attacker.com," which is overseen through an attacker-controlled authoritative DNS server. 

2) Since the recursive DNS server isn't approved to resolve this domain, it forwards the operation to the attacker's malicious authoritative DNS server. 

3) The malignant DNS server answers to the recursive DNS server with a message that likens to “I’m delegating this DNS resolving operation to this large list of name servers." The list contains a large number of subdomains for a victim website.

4) The recursive DNS server forwards the DNS inquiry to all the subdomains on the list, giving rise to a surge in traffic for the victim's authoritative DNS server.



The Israeli researchers said they've been working for the past few months with the producers of DNS software; content delivery networks, and oversaw DNS suppliers apply mitigations to DNS servers over the world. 

Affected software incorporates the likes of ISC BIND (CVE-2020-8616), NLnet labs Unbound (CVE-2020-12662), PowerDNS (CVE-2020-10995), and CZ.NIC Knot Resolver (CVE-2020-12667), yet additionally commercial DNS administrations provided by organizations like Cloudflare, Google, Amazon, Microsoft, Oracle (DYN), Verisign, IBM Quad9, and ICANN.



Patches have been discharged over the previous weeks. They incorporate mitigations that keep attackers from mishandling the DNS delegation procedure to flood different DNS servers.

The research team's work has been properly detailed in a scholarly paper entitled "NXNSAttack: Recursive DNS Inefficiencies and Vulnerabilities," available for download in PDF format.

4G Network Is Under Attack!




As of yesterday a team of academics published a report on a research conducted that described three attacks against the mobile communication standard LTE (Long Term Evolution), otherwise called the 4G network.

As indicated by the researchers, two of the three attacks are 'passive', which means that they allow an attacker to gather meta-information about the user's activity and in addition to this also enable the attacker to determine what sites a user may visit through his LTE device. Then again the third is a functioning attack or an active attack in other words, that gives the attacker a chance to manipulate data sent to the user's LTE gadget.

Researchers nicknamed the active attack aLTEr in view of its intrusive capacities, which they utilized as a part of their experiments to re-direct users to malevolent sites by altering the DNS packets.
In any case, the researchers said that the regular users have nothing to fear, until further notice as carrying out any of the three attacks requires extremely unique and costly hardware, alongside custom programming, which for the most part puts this kind of attack out of the reach of most cyber criminals.

"We conducted the attacks in an experimental setup in our lab that depends on special hardware and a controlled environment," researchers said. "These requirements are, at the moment, hard to meet in real LTE networks. However, with some engineering effort, our attacks can also be performed in the wild."

The equipment expected to pull off such attacks is fundamentally the same as purported "IMSI catchers" or "Stingray" gadgets, equipment utilized by law enforcement around the globe to trap a target's phone into interfacing with a fake telecommunication tower.

The contrast between an aLTEr attack and a classic IMSI catcher is that the IMSI catchers perform 'passive' MitM attack to decide the target's geo-area, while aLTEr can actually alter what the user views on his/her device.

With respect to the technical details of the three attacks, the three vulnerabilities exist in one of the two LTE layers called the data layer, the one that is known for transporting the user's real information. The other layer is the control layer as that is the one that controls and keeps the user's 4G connection running.

As indicated by researchers, the vulnerabilities exist on the grounds that the data layer isn't secured, so an attacker can capture, change, and after that transfer the altered packets to the actual cell tower.
The research team, made up of three researchers from the Ruhr-University in Bochum, Germany and a specialist from New York University, say they have warned the relevant institutions like the GSM Association (GSMA), 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), as well as the telephone companies about the issues they had found.

Cautioning that the issue could likewise influence the up and coming version of the 5G standard in its present form. Experts said that the 5G standard incorporates extra security features to forestall aLTEr attacks; however these are as of now discretionary.

The research team has although, published its discoveries in a research paper entitled "Breaking LTE on Layer Two," which they intend to display at the 2019 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy , to be held in May 2019 in San Francisco.

Below is a link of a demo of an aLTEr attack recorded by researchers.


DDOS attack brings the Internet to its knees

The fight between a spam fighting company called "Spamhaus" and a web hosting company called "Cyberbunker" has slowed down a majority of the internet by making DNS resolving slow.



The reason behind the attack is that Spamhaus added the IP addresses of cyberbunker to its "spam" list due to Cyberbunker allowing almost any sort of content to be hosted hence also maybe the source for spam. So Cyberbunker attacked back and this attack also affected normal internet users.

The attack was possible because of the large number of vulnerable DNS servers that allow open DNS resolving.Simply put an attack exploiting this type of vulnerability makes use of the vulnerability of the DNS server to increase the intensity of the attack 100 fold.

The origins of these type of attacks goes back to the 1990's to an attack called "smurf attack"

But now the attack method has become more efficient and uses DNS amplification to flood the victim with spoofed requests which are sent to the DNS servers by using a botnet of compromised computers.The attack at its peak reached a speed of 300 Gbps making it the largest DDOS attack in history.

Cyberbunker which claims itself to be a supporter of free speech and defender against the "big bullies" seems to have now have stooped down to their level of using aggressive offensive methods that affect the normal functioning of the internet.This is not the way to go !

The people who run DNS resolvers are also equally responsible for these attacks as its their vulnerable servers that make these attacks possible, the internet community should come up with a PERMANENT solution to this problem.

Please read cloudflare's blog post for a detailed analysis : http://blog.cloudflare.com/the-ddos-that-almost-broke-the-internet